Plant breeding is a scientific technique of mating two different varieties of plant to get a better variety of the desired plant. Plant breeding is a modern scientific technique which helps us to produce varieties which give us better yield in terms of both quality and quantity. In plant breeding different species of plants having desired characters are crossbred to get new plant species which serve better to the mankind. Plant breeding has been practised from thousands of years, since the establishment of human civilization. Plants are mainly bred to get new plants which can tolerate environmental strains like intense temperatures, salinity, famine, which have disease resistance and have improved tolerance towards insecticides.
Technique of plant breeding
In plant breeding first different varieties of plants are cultivated and are studied for desired characters. From the cultivated plants the plants showing requisite qualities are selected and their genetic material is collected for studying the exclusive traits. Then the selected plants are hybridised by making the pollen of one fall on the stigma of other. This process does not give positive results every time and many times the pollen grain fails to develop on the stigma. If the hybridisation occurs in the right manner then the newly produce are called recombinants. Then these recombinants are tested for better ones and they are subjected to many quality checks and are tested for nay kind of malady or deformity they can cause to the humans. After the testing of new plants they are made offered in the market for commercialisation.
Modern day plant breeding programmes also include genetic engineering. In this kind of method genetic material of both the plants which are to be bred in extracted. Genetic material has subunits called genes which are responsible for the different traits shown by the plants. Deep study is made on the genetic material of the plants and the genes coding for the required character are found. These genes are removed and multiplied through a series of biochemical processes. Then theses genes are added into the genetic material of other plant. Like the technique of hybridisation this technique is not effective always. It the gene introduced in the genetic material of other plant integrates with it and starts showing the desired traits then the new plant produced by recombination is again tested and is floated in market.Many microbes also help in plant breeding programmes. Many new varieties of crops like wheat, rice, maize, millets have been produced using the plant breeding program which have resistance against pests, disease and provide us with improved quality of food crop.