Plant disease is basically classified as a noninfectious disease if it is caused by any of the environmental factors and do not get transmitted from one affected plant to another. Only that plant disease is infectious which is caused through the disease organisms like the fungus, nematode or the fungus.
Some of the very common of the plant disease are:
Wilt means the foliage drooping later leading to the death of concerned plant. It is basically caused in the seedlings when the plant bases become rotten due to fungi and they fall on the grounds. The only measure for preventing wilting is to select a site that is well drained.
Canker is localized and definite deformation or the necrotic lesion that mainly affects the bark region. It ultimately results in death of part of the tree affected. Canker is usually caused by sun scorch, frost, drought and fire.
Heart rot is caused by numerous fungi. It is characterized by the heart rot fungus’ fruiting bodies, swollen knots, punk knots, dry branches sticking out of the bole or the swollen boles. To prevent heart rot, the trees should be prevented from any kind of injuries.
Root infecting fungus that causes various root diseases in plants and trees. These fungi may be either root inhabiting or soil inhabiting. If the fungus is soil inhabiting it causes wilt but if it is root inhabiting, it causes the root rot plant disease. This infection gets easily transferred to the new seedling’s roots.
Decay is caused by fungus and is the decomposition of the wood. When the fungus attacks the living tissues of the tree or plant, it may result in its death. When it affects the heartwood or the dead wood of the tree, it can lead to heart rot plant disease.
The most harmful of the plant diseases is the damping off plant disease. Mortality of the plant can occur at any of the growth stages, before emergence out of ground due to the pre emergence blight, after emergence due to base tissue rotting and death of seedling due to the root rot. It can be controlled if the site for sowing the seeds is well chosen, the soil is light textured and the seeds are given fungicidal treatments.
Plant disease can be prevented if certain precautions are followed. Like, the soil should be prepared in the season earlier to destroy the plant residues of the plants that were grown in the earlier growing seasons. The crops should be rotated each season so that plant specific pests and disease do not harbor and prosper in the soil. Also, plants should be sowed as per the soil type and their seeds should be treated with fungicides well before they are sown so that they do not become susceptible to any of the common plant diseases. The most important thing is that weedicides should be used and weeds should not be allowed to grow as they also transfer several plant diseases.