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Plant Genetics: the most significant and effective way of producing high-yield crops

Plant genetics in the current day scenario has increasingly become the most important source of yielding high quality crops. In terms of molecular biology, the use of plant genetics refers to the alteration and modifications in the genes of a plant cell ensuing from the genomic incorporation, uptake and appearance of foreign genetic substance (DNA). Different terms are brought in use for the genetic modifications which result from introducing DNA through viruses, also known as “transduction” or through “conjugation” which means cell to cell contact amid the bacteria. However, RNA could also be made transfer into the cells with the use of similar methods but, on the whole it is not credible enough to produce genetic change and due to this reason it cannot be called true plant genetics or transformation.

Plant researchers and experts in bio-technology are of the opinion that genetic manufacturing of plants comes easier than genetics of animals. This is possible owing to a good number of reasons such as:

  • In plants, there is a system of natural transformation
  • Plant tissues can be regenerated; a genetically altered piece of plant tissue could be possibly regenerated into a complete plant.
  • For a great variety of plants, regeneration of tissues as well as plant genetics or “transformation” comes relatively easy.

A large number of plant varieties that have been genetically engineered are being developed these days. The changes and qualities which had been introduced through genetic engineering in plants include amplified virus tolerance, herbicide resistance and less sensitivity to insects which is more commonly known as pathogen attack. A few years back, conventionally, the majority of such plants that had been genetically engineered included varieties such as petunia, tobacco or other similar species but, with a comparatively restricted agricultural application. However, unlike the past decade, in the present times with swift develop and growth of insight into the subject of plant genetics, it has now become greatly possible to genetically engineer major staple food crops such as rice and corn. Another significant fact to be acknowledged is that with the easy plant genetics of the major food crops, their regeneration into a complete and more fertile plants has also become possible.

The major DNA-delivery mechanism has been nicknamed “gene gun” by the plant researchers, and shown to have effectively worked for the delivery of DNA into chloroplasts for long. Over the past couple of years, the relative use of this effective “gene gun” has turn out to be the most common method for genetic engineering of plants. Also, this popular DNA-delivery mechanism has become very popular as it has been exhibited for being applicable to practically all the plant species that were investigated. For instance, the genetically engineering of the rice crop with this mechanism has now become a routine. In all respects this can said to be a very significant development for the fact that rice is by far and by large the most crucial crop all over the world; and with this development a great relaxation has come in terms of feeding the global population which is critically dependent on this crop as it makes for the main portion of their daily diet.

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